Dedicated to sustainable,
high performance building

Multifaith Housing Initiative: Veterans’ House

Higher standard building enclosure and materials provide healthier living, lower operating costs

Jessie Smith and Stephen Pope

MHI Veterans’ House: The Andy Carswell Building is Canada’s first community housing project specifically designed for veterans.  Located on the former Rockcliffe Air Base, this three-storey, 40-unit apartment building provides safe, healthy, and affordable housing for veterans. The project is part of a contemporary mixed-use community that is walkable, cycling-supportive, transit-oriented, and built at a human scale.

Twenty percent of the units and all common amenity spaces inside Veterans House are fully accessible, while the remaining suites are ‘visitable’. Partnering non-profit organizations have access to shared office space on the ground floor, enabling them to provide a variety of support services for veterans as they adjust to civilian life. Communal spaces, including a multipurpose room, a fitness room, and a shared kitchen promote community engagement and healthy living.

In preparation for this project, MHI invited Ottawa Salus Corporation and several veteran-focused groups to attend a ‘Plan of Care’ charette to discuss the design features that would best support the needs of veterans. Of particular importance was the provision of extensive landscaping to ensure residents would have easy visual and physical access to nature.

In response, the site was designed to maximize the amount of green space on the property. This has provided individual suites unobstructed views and access to abundant daylight. Walking paths and a dog run surround the building to promote a healthy lifestyle. The landscape design also includes healing, meditation, and vegetable gardens to provide a place of respite for those suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who may find comfort in the solitude.

Inside the building, finishes were selected to avoid trigger colours for those suffering from PTSD. Exposed wood accents are used throughout the building, including large mass timber canopies, to evoke a sense of calm.

MHI chose to follow the Passive House standard for the design and construction of the building. Extra investment was made to achieve high levels of air tightness and thermal control of the building envelope. Ventilation air is provided by premium energy recovery ventilators, supplying continuous and balanced outdoor fresh air. Energy modeling shows that the building has a 43% energy use reduction and 57% carbon reduction relative to the National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings (NECB) 2015 reference model.


  • Owner/Developer  Multifaith Housing Initiative
  • Architect  CSV Architects
  • General contractor  McDonald Brothers Construction
  • Landscape Architect  Lashley & Associates
  • Civil Engineer McIntosh Perry
  • Mechanical/Electrical Engineer  Smith & Andersen
  • Structural engineer  Cunliffe and Associates
  • Commissioning Agent Geo-Energie
  • Photos  Krista Jahnke Photography, CSV Architects

The main entrance. Windows by NZP Fenestration are certified for Passive House.


PH-1 Lonsdale Avenue

Restaurant/office realized with design collaboration and prefabrication

By John Hemsworth

PH-1 is a small restaurant and office infill project in the Lower Lonsdale district of North Vancouver that employed virtual design and construction (VDC) and off-site prefabrication to meet challenges of access and constructability. VDC also made possible the installation of a prefabricated Passive House-compliant building envelope, including a zero-lot line wall adjacent to an existing building.

Originally an area of waterfront warehouses and marine service facilities, the neighbourhood has been transformed over time to a high density, mixed-use community centred on the Lonsdale Quay Market and Seabus Terminal. The consolidation of land required by the introduction of higher density zoning had left lots like this exceptionally difficult to develop.

As a family that had owned the property for three generations, the client was waiting for the right opportunity to do something special on the site. The idea of combining Passive House performance with modern mass timber construction was enthusiastically received, despite the many challenges and uncertainties it presented.

A waiver of the on-site parking requirement made it possible to design a three-storey building (with a ground floor restaurant and two storeys of offices above) that would achieve the full 2.53 FSR permitted by the zoning. The building made use of exemptions (applicable to the extra thick walls used in Passive House construction) to achieve a three-storey building, however, the 92% site coverage eliminated the possibility of an on-site staging area for materials and equipment, typically required for site construction.

Architecturally, the concept was to use the traditional warehouse vocabulary of an exposed heavy timber structure with brick cladding, but to interpret it in a contemporary way. This strategy has translated into an exposed glulam post and beam structure with cross laminated timber (CLT) floors, stair and elevator shafts.

The non-loadbearing brick cladding at the southeast corner of the building is ‘eroded’ away and replaced with large areas of glazing, providing restaurant patrons and office workers with an oblique view to the harbour.  The remainder of the south façade includes extensive glazing at ground level, with a staggered pattern of vertical windows, coordinated with glulam bracing elements, on the upper floors.

While the Code permitted the three exterior walls facing the streets and lane to be of combustible construction, it required the north wall abutting the adjacent property to be non-combustible. Such walls are typically built block by block in concrete masonry, a method incompatible with Passive House performance. A more sophisticated solution was clearly required, one in which the continuous exterior insulation and vapour barrier essential for Passive House performance could be installed without accessing the outer face of the wall in the field.

Using a VDC process involving the architect, structural engineer, building envelope consultant, contractor, and the mass wood fabricator and installer, a prefabricated and pre-insulated wall system was devised, then alternative detailing, assembly and installation strategies explored and optimized.


  • Owner  Babco Equities Ltd.
  • Architect  Hemsworth Architecture
  • Structural Engineer  Equilibrium Consulting Inc.
  • Electrical/ Mechanical Engineer  MCW Consultants Ltd.
  • Civil Engineer  Vector Engineering Services Ltd.
  • Geotechnical  GVH Consulting Ltd.
  • Building Code Consultant  LMDG
  • Passive House consultant  Peel Passive House Consulting Ltd.
  • Landscape Architect  Prospect & Refuge
  • General Contractor  Naikoon Contracting Ltd.
  • Photos  Ema Peter


Little Mountain Cohousing

Compact plan visually connects all building levels to shared outdoor space

By Simon Richards

Little Mountain Cohousing (LMC) is the second cohousing project to be completed in Vancouver. The project applies the well-understood principles of cohousing to a compact, medium density urban building form. The design has been developed for 25-member households, all of whom participated in the design process.

The result is a building with 14 different unit types to satisfy different needs, ranging from two-level townhouse units to apartments with one to four bedrooms. Each unit has its own generous outdoor space. As well as the individual units – and key to the cohousing model – the building contains a common house space to accommodate a range of social purposes including regular shared meals.

Other common spaces include a children’s play room, quiet lounge, visitor suite, workshop and music room. There are multiple places for casual encounter; the upper roof is developed for shared outdoor social use, children’s play, and urban gardening. The LMC residents also asked that the circulation system sustain the dynamics of community, and specifically that the shared outdoor space be visually connected to all building levels.

The design concept needed to reconcile this in a manner that also conformed to the relatively tight massing constraints and design guidelines of the Little Mountain Development Area. The resolution took the form of an ‘L’-shaped building plan with the open vertical circulation at the intersection of the two arms of the L, giving those using the stairs a view of the courtyard garden and Common House below. Each level has a small meeting area at the intersection of the horizontal and vertical circulation.

The 14 different unit types, ranging from two-level townhouse units to apartments with one to four bedrooms, have their own outdoor space, and a common room accommodates social functions. The project showcases the high performance triple-glazed wood windows and doors from Vetta Building Technologies.


  • Heating Demand  14.7 kWhr/m²/a
  • Primary Energy Demand – PER  58.2 kWhr/m²/a
  • Airtightness  0.6 ach (n50)


  • Owner/Developer  Little Mountain Cohousing Group
  • Architect & Passive House Designer  Cornerstone Architecture
  • Cohousing Consultant/Project Manager  CDC – Cohousing Development Consulting
  • Structural Engineer  London Mah & Associates Ltd.
  • Mechanical Engineer  DIALOG
  • Electrical Engineer  Nemetz (S/A) & Associates Ltd.
  • Landscape Architect  DKL
  • Building Envelope  Aqua-Coast Engineering
  • Interior Design Nielsen Design
  • Passive House Certification  RDH Building Science Inc.
  • Code Consultant/CP  Camphora
  • General Contractor  Peak Construction Croup
  • Key PH Component Specification and Supply  Small Planet Supply
  • Airtightness Testing  E3 Eco Group
  • HRV Commissioning  Dome Energy Consulting
  • Photos  Martin Knowles Photo/Media


Doig River Cultural Centre

Community building brings superb energy performance to northern climate

By Peter Hildebrand 

The Doig River Cultural Centre in Rose Prairie, BC is among Canada’s most northerly PHI-certified projects and the first certified First Nations community building completed. The main level comprises 250m² of community-oriented space with an upper mezzanine for additional seating and a lower level comprising a daycare and an Elders lounge. The design, which allows for multiple uses within a single building, was intended to promote inter-generational interaction and fulfill the community’s desire for a safe and healthy space for all its members.

In such a small and remote community, a close network of buildings is crucial to establish a central gathering place and create a critical mass for community functions. The project’s site locates the Centre close to the existing community administration building to create a somewhat civic centre. This proximity also minimized the need for major infrastructure expansion.

Nestled into the slope in a grove of birch and aspen trees, the building complements its natural surroundings and offers a gesture of welcome at the entrance to the community. The slope also facilitates grade access to both levels, which eliminates the need for an elevator or wheelchair lift.

The choice of building form and orientation were critical, with a large south-facing roof and extensive glazing required to maximize winter solar heat gain and optimize PV panel exposure. This orientation also creates a dynamic display of light and shadow across the splayed walls as the melting snow constantly shifts and changes shape as it makes its way down the surface of the glass. The compact two-level plus mezzanine organization of the program minimizes the building’s footprint, reduces the surface-to-volume ratio, and lessens the environmental impact of the building on the site.

The structure is a hybrid of site-built and prefabricated components, thus increasing quality and precision. The primary structural system consists of glue-laminated arches with prefabricated panels between them that arrived on site with pre-installed insulation. An additional 300mm of insulation was added around the entire perimeter of the building, which was secured using wood strapping and 350mm screws.

The screws were oriented at opposing angles in a truss-like configuration to ensure vertical rigidity and prevent the insulation from sagging. Fastening the thick layer of insulation to the face of the sheathing required careful detailing and a new approach to the cladding system design. The exterior cladding materials comprise standing seam metal roof and wall cladding, and a composite shake product made from recycled plastic and wood fibres that comes with a 50-year warranty.

The sleek, straight-lined Prolok profile of the metal cladding, supplied by Westform, provides long-term durability in unlimited colour options.


  • Architect  Iredale Architecture
  • Owner/Developer  Doig River First Nation
  • General Contractor  Erik Olofsson Construction Inc.
  • Landscape Architect  Urban Systems
  • Civil Engineer Urban Systems
  • Electrical Engineer  EDG Corporation
  • Mechanical Engineer  Rocky Point Engineering Ltd.
  • Structural engineer  Equilibrium Consulting Inc.
  • Passive House Consultant  RDH Building Science
  • Passive House Certifier  Edsco
  • Geotechnical Engineer  Golder Associates


Eco Flats 1.0

Upgrade preserves existing building while supporting low carbon living

By Carla Crawford

Eco Flats 1.0 is a conversion of an aged Toronto rowhouse into an energy-efficient, all-electric triplex. The ambitions for this project were: to increase urban density; provide quality housing during a housing crisis; create homes for multiple tenants that support a carbon-free lifestyle; and make it a super energy-efficient, all-electric building.

With the Ontario power grid being 94% renewable, it was not only possible to do this, but also to disconnect the original gas supply to the building. With greatly improved airtightness and super insulation, the overall energy intensity of the renovated building is 108 kWh/m2/year, an 89% reduction compared to the original.

With a walk score of 93, transit score of 99, and bike score of 100, this property was the perfect choice. The nearest intersection has two streetcar lines and one bus line, two of which connect to the subway in just a few minutes. The intersection is also a hub for the West Toronto Railpath, which connects pedestrians and cyclists to The Junction neighbourhood, and is slated for expansion that will eventually connect to downtown. In addition, the local area is well serviced with grocery stores, schools, daycares, walk-in clinics, a hospital, a YMCA, and more. Everything is accessible without reliance on a car.

The design optimizes daylighting, as well as passive heat gain and cooling. This does not always mean more glazing: large third floor windows required shading to reduce overheating. Each of the three apartments are equipped with their own independent Energy Recovery Ventilator (ERV), which reduces energy consumption by transferring heat and moisture from outgoing air to fresh incoming air.

The apartment layouts are designed to accommodate a variety of tenant types: individuals, families and roommates. Each apartment has its own unique entrance directly from the outside, with the upper unit entering from the front sidewalk, and the main and lower apartments entering via a communal patio space in the rear.


  • Energy intensity (building and process energy) = 108KWhr/m2/year
  • Energy intensity reduction relative to reference building under MNECB 1997 = 89%
  • Water consumption from municipal sources = 16,060 litres/occupant/year
  • Reduction in water consumption relative to reference building under LEED = 45%
  • Owner/Developer/General Contractor Lolley Knezic Projects Inc.
  • Architect  Solares Architecture Inc.
  • Mechanical Engineer  ReNü Engineering Inc.
  • Structural Engineer  Kattakar Engineering Associates Inc.
  • Commissioning Agent/Envelope Testing  Blue Green Consulting Group
  • Grey Water Systems  Greyter Water Systems
  • Photos  Solares Architecture Inc.

Lumenpulse Headquarters

New workplace mirrors client’s attention to design, and cuts energy use

By Jim Taggart

Located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River across from Montreal, Longueuil has long been a preferred location for leading high-tech industries including aerospace and renewable energy.

These have now been joined by Lumenpulse, an international lighting solutions company that designs, develops, manufactures and sells a wide range of high-performance, sustainable LED lighting solutions for commercial, institutional and urban environments. Together with its affiliate companies, it has successfully completed major installations in North America and Europe, including offices for Microsoft in Seattle and H&M in Florence, Italy.

The company wanted to create a head office that would embody its values of innovation, collaboration, communication and transparency, as well as serving the needs of its employees and its business operations. The site, one of many considered, was chosen for its location close to residential areas, arterial roads and transit routes for employees; and to the Montreal St. Hubert airport and Highway 10 leading to the US, to serve the needs of the company’s export business.

On the outskirts of a long-established business park, the site had been abandoned for many years.  The land was remediated in preparation for the new building, now encircled by native landscaping overlooked by patios and terraces. Existing concrete slabs were crushed for use in landscaping and existing service infrastructure was reused wherever possible.

Through its design and program organization, the new building captures and communicates the history and culture of Lumenpulse, providing the company an architectural identity that reinforces its corporate brand. Montreal-based Lemay provided transdisciplinary services in architecture, interior design, graphic design and urban planning.

The complex houses a production space, laboratory, design and engineering, offices and an experiential space, supported by robust security and electrical systems. As a whole, it is characterized by the quantity and quality of natural light and the creative use of low energy LED lighting throughout the building.

Together with a high-performance building envelope, a low-albedo white roof to reduce the heat island effect, high-efficiency mechanical systems and heat recovery ventilation, overall energy consumption is 42% less than the ASHRAE 90.1 benchmark.  Two-thirds of primary energy is renewable with fossil fuel energy used only when the systems are in heating mode.


  • Energy intensity (building and process energy) = 177KWhr/m²/year
  • Energy intensity reduction relative to reference building under MNECB 1997 = 42.4%
  • Water consumption from municipal sources = 3,154 litres/occupant/year
  • Reduction in water consumption relative to reference building under LEED = 46.5%
  • Recycled material content by value = 12.7%
  • Regional materials (800km radius) by value = 37.5%
  • Construction waste diverted from landfill = 78.2%


  • Owner/Developer  9341-0983 Quebec Inc. 
  • Architecture/Structure/Interior Design  Lemay
  • General Contractor  Groupe Montoni (1995) Division Construction Inc.
  • Landscape Architect  Beaupre et Ass.
  • Civil Engineer Les consultants MESC
  • Electrical Engineer  Dupres Ledoux
  • Mechanical Engineer  Dupres Ledoux
  • Photos  Stephen Bruger


UBC Okanagan, Skeena Residence

Multi-unit residential building design takes care in detailing

By Brian Wakelin

The new UBCO Skeena Residence at the Okanagan Campus of the University of British Columbia comprises approximately 72,600 gross square feet over six storeys and has been designed to Passive House standards. The ground floor includes common housing amenities and building service spaces while the upper five storeys include accommodation for 220 students together with associated social spaces. Skeena completes an ensemble of residence buildings encircling the central green space on campus – known as Commons Field. The project focuses on student life and support services while meshing seamlessly with the existing campus. 

The five identical residential floors include shared bathrooms flanked by two bedrooms. This layout allows space for quiet study when required. Additionally, each floor contains both a study lounge and a house lounge with views of the surrounding mountains, the lounge being equipped with a kitchenette, dining table and couches. Locating these spaces at opposite ends of the floor ensures that quiet study is not interrupted by noise from the social home lounge.

On the first level, the Skeena Residence has a large laundry room located adjacent to the student lounge. Separated by a glass wall, the relationship between the two spaces encourages chance meetings and spontaneous gatherings. Moreover, the transparency offers passive surveillance, or visibility that promotes a sense of security. In short, the design of the building supports community life. 

The design of the Skeena residence was driven largely by the requirements of the building program and by the successful layout of the neighbouring student residence. The two bedrooms with shared bathroom module uses an optimal length and width, which also optimizes the number of floors required to accommodate the building requirements – the objective being to minimize the amount of energy required to heat and cool the building. 

This Passive House goal of minimal energy use for heating and cooling also informed other design choices. Given that irregular building forms with multiple indentations and corners, or projections such as steps, overhangs, or canopies create challenges for insulation, airtightness and the elimination of thermal bridging, a simple and efficient planar volume performs most optimally. Mechanical systems also work best within a narrow, contiguous box. This limits aesthetic parameters to material, colour, pattern, and texture. Thus, the simpler the building, the more important material choices and detailing become.

The exterior is clad in a combination of brightly coloured fibre cement panels and darker metal panels. A feeling of depth is created by bringing the fibre cement panels forward of the metal, emphasizing the depth of the window reveals.  This gives articulation to the simple form, without introducing complexity that would compromise energy performance.

Design decisions are also swayed by other practicalities such as standard and locally-available materials and techniques. The building is a wood frame with some concrete on the ground floor. A wood structure was chosen for its inherent insulative properties as well as its ready availability and ease of construction. 

Eco Habitat S1600


Low life cycle carbon footprint guides compact design

By Emmanuel Cosgrove

This prefabricated kit home (the first out of the factory) of 180 m² was originally assembled for a 2019 home show at the Montreal Olympic stadium, before being disassembled and moved to its permanent location outside the town of Wakefield. Now functioning as a family home, the operating energy consumption will be monitored and recalculated after 12 months of use.

The design objective was to create a housing option with a low ‘cradle to grave’ life cycle carbon footprint, through compact design, careful material choices, and other strategies that would further contribute to low operating energy and GHG emissions.

While new construction in both residential and commercial sectors is showing incremental reduction in operating energy and related emissions in response to higher energy efficiency standards, the ‘elephant in the room’ is ‘grey energy’ – that associated with the extraction, transportation, fabrication and installation of construction materials. Given the current average life cycle and energy performance of buildings, only about half of the energy expended over the life of a building is from the operations phase, the other half is from the construction phase.

To demonstrate the importance of calculating embodied energy, Ecohome’s Quebec-based affiliate Ecohabitation did a carbon calculation of the Eco-Habitat S1600 prefab kit house using the Athena Impact Estimator for buildings software, which assesses the environmental impact of each building component. Doing this analysis early in the design phase identifies where a building is scoring high, and enables designers to find alternative materials and products to lower the carbon impact of the project.

A low carbon building strategy begins with sourcing natural building materials produced as close to the site as possible, using the minimum amount of energy and with few if any chemical additives.

This not only reduces emissions and pollution, but equally importantly, leads to healthier and safer indoor environments for occupants.

The single greatest consideration when reducing the carbon footprint of a building is to reduce the use of concrete as much as possible; then to reduce the impact of the concrete that must be used for structural integrity or thermal mass. Look first for locally-available sources of concrete that include recycled content, or choose a formula that has a lower carbon footprint than regular concrete. Design choices can also contribute to a reduction in concrete use; for example, a slab on grade rather than a full  basement. The Wakefield S1600 house uses a slab on grade solar air-heated radiant floor.


Green Gables Visitor Centre

Phase II expansion respects tradition in pursuing LEED Gold

By Kendall Taylor

The Green Gables Visitors Centre is situated on 16 acres of rural land in Cavendish, Prince Edward Island that was the setting for the highly successful 1908 novel ‘Anne of Green Gables’ by Lucy Maud Montgomery. The property includes several locations familiar to readers: the main Green Gables house, the Haunted Wood trail and Lovers Lane. The property was acquired by Parks Canada in the 1930s and has become an extremely popular tourist destination for PEI.

A 2015 survey determined that the existing facilities were in need of renovation and expansion to accommodate a growing number of visitors from Canada and around the world. Parks Canada reacted by creating an extensive program which would be constructed in three distinct phases. Phase I was completed in the spring of 2017. Phase II, consisting of the Lucy Maud Montgomery Exhibition space, a main lobby atrium, a gift shop, and public washrooms, was completed in the spring of 2019.  Phase III was to decommission the temporary gift shop in Phase I and transform it into a new cafe and commercial kitchen.

The Visitors Centre acts as the main arrival point, connecting the property through a circulation axis that also frames views to the original farmhouse. A campus approach has been taken to help distribute visitors (who may number as many as 1100 at a time) across the site. Parking has been reorganized to separate bus, RV and car traffic from those who arrive by bicycle or on foot.

Parks Canada wanted a structure that would be respectful of the historic house and the vernacular buildings of the region, yet provide highly functional modern visitor facilities. Heritage restrictions apply to the Green Gables House and courtyard, but in the areas where the Visitor Centre is located are much more relaxed.  This offered the opportunity to reinterpret the wood building tradition of PEI in a contemporary way.


The Green Point Project

Achieving a world first at standard cost

By Kenneth Chooi and Ross Wood

The Green Point Project is a 2,600 sq.ft. single-family residence located on a 6.25-acre forest and sensitive shoreline in Cowichan Bay on the east coast of Vancouver Island.The project is striving to achieve a world first by achieving Passive house (PH) and Living Building Challenge (LBC) certifications. Additionally, Green Point just received a third certification, Green Shores for Homes – Orca designation. Inspired by the concepts of Biophilia and Regenerative Design, the project proponents set themselves these ambitious goals within a relatively modest budget of $300/sf. 

The architecture is inspired by rural buildings of the region and First Nation’s Long Houses. Wood is used as the primary building material and the house is fitted carefully into the natural forested landscape.

Reclamation and regeneration of the natural ecosystem was guided by an integrated design process involving the municipality, biologists, archaeologists, First Nations consultants, landscape architects, conservationists, engineers, building contractors, arborists, marine ecologists and permaculture specialists.

The site had been previously altered into a private six-hole golf course and the design team felt strongly that the ecosystem was now in distress. The decision was made to begin ‘re-wilding’ the site by surveying the Garry Oak forest to understand the ancient ecosystem; removing mechanical and plastic debris from the beach and restoring the natural shoreline; transforming the putting green into a natural meadow and the ornamental garden into a permaculture-based food production system that benefits both human and animal residents of the site. The water system is a closed loop with potable water being drawn from onsite wells and wastewater being treated onsite by an aerated septic system, with effluent used to regenerate the meadow.

The Green Point Project was constructed using only low-carbon, responsibly-sourced and RED List-free materials. The embodied carbon footprint of the project was minimized through a “wood first” material strategy and by prioritizing locally-sourced and salvaged materials. The structure and envelope were primarily built with sustainably harvested FSC and salvaged wood. The decision to avoid all Red List materials supports transparency, accountability, and health within the construction industry.

Kenneth ChooI is with DSK Architects, and Ross Wood is with Counterpoise Architecture.

The house has a 95% high-efficiency HRV and back-up electrical heaters. A 35-module PV system is expected to generate more energy than will be consumed. Passive House-certified windows and doors by Fenstur.


  • Owner/Developer  Fiona McLagan and Kenneth Chooi
  • Architect and Design Team  DSK Architecture with the Green Point Design Collective,
  • Nido Design and Ross Wood
  • General Contractor  Bernhardt Contracting
  • Electrical and Mechanical Engineer  Integral Engineering
  • Structural Engineer  Sorensen Trilogy Structural Engineering Solutions
  • Landscape Architect  Victoria Drakeford Landscape Architecture with
  • Lunar Bloom Landscaping
  • Commissioning Agent  Earth Cycle Technologies (Passive House),
  • Bernhardt Contracting (HRV)
  • Energy Modelling  Nido Design
  • Photos  Rob Wilson    


  • Energy intensity (building and process energy) = 15 kwhr/m²/year
  • Water consumption from municipal sources = none
  • Reduction in water consumption relative to reference building = 100 %
  • Recycled material content by value = 98%
  • Regional materials (800km radius) by value = 99%
  • Construction waste diverted from landfill = 99%