Dedicated to sustainable,
high performance building

Third & Hawkins Condo

Local residents band together to offer comfort and high efficiency to downsizers

By Mary Ellen Read

Located in downtown Whitehorse, this six-storey, predominantly wood-frame structure is the brainchild of three couples, none with previous construction or development experience. They joined forces with a common purpose: to develop a sustainable, community-oriented residential building that would also meet market expectations of comfort and luxury.

Enthusiastically supported by the local council, the development objective was to encourage downsizing owners to return to the city’s downtown core. Located in the well-established south-end of town, the building is only a few blocks from the dynamic urban amenities of Main Street, three parks with playgrounds are within 0.5 km, and both the Waterfront Trail and Millennium Trail (popular among urban hikers, dog-walkers, and joggers) are just steps away.

The majority of the units are 1,200 square feet with two bedrooms. The developers occupy three of the four penthouses, while the remaining units were sold at market value to finance construction. This innovative approach to development helped expand the inventory and diversify the options for those wanting to live downtown.

The building is a pinwheel shape in plan; rotated 15-degrees from the property lines to allow each unit to have multiple exposures for daylight and views to the mountains. 

With the primary target market being active seniors, the building is designed to facilitate aging in place. However, the generous hallways and wide wheelchair-friendly doorways create a sense of spaciousness that appeals to everyone.  Other accessibility features include zero-threshold showers; grab-bars strategically placed throughout; lever handles on doors and faucets; under counter and task lighting in kitchens; and high-contrast edges between walls and floors for residents with low vision.

The 15-degree rotation in plan creates inviting outdoor parkettes on two corners, planted with low-maintenance native shrubs. Large sections of permeable surfaces allow water to percolate into the ground, minimizing the impact of the spring freeze/thaw cycle and reducing stress on the local sewer system. 

Parking is at ground level since the down-ramp would require more space than the building’s compact footprint would allow. Concrete is also an expensive commodity to source in the North, and the additional cost of an underground parkade could not be justified.

Mary Ellen Read is a principal at Northern Front Studio.

The building is equipped with a high-efficiency central ERV system, specifically a RG 2000, by Winnipeg-based Tempeff. Acting as the building’s lungs, the ERV not only recovers heat, but also factors in humidity making it the best choice for occupant comfort in a cold, humid climate. The ERV makes use of Dual-Core technology allowing for continuous fresh air supply and frost-free operation in this climate.


The ReCover Initiative

By Emma Norton, Nick Rudnicki and Lorrie Rand

Nova Scotia has committed to aggressive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, targeting a 53% reduction below 1990 levels by 2030, and net zero emissions by 2050. A recent report by Brendan Haley and Ralph Torrie states that existing buildings are responsible for 47% of Nova Scotia’s GHG emissions. Read more …

In 2030, more than 75% of the building stock in Nova Scotia will be composed of buildings in use today, and an estimated 60% of those buildings will still be in use in 2050. This means that existing buildings will have a large impact on meeting Nova Scotia’s emissions targets.

In light of these facts, the ReCover Initiative was established to develop a Deep Retrofit methodology for Nova Scotia that can be implemented at a large scale.

Our goal was to achieve enough energy savings to ensure that the building could be net-zero with the addition of renewables. As such our approach involved energy savings through superinsulation AND an airtightness target of 1 ACH (passive house retrofit target), fuel switching of the building mechanicals (from fuel oil to electric), and addition of high-efficiency new equipment, including dedicated ERVs in each unit and then solar PV.. Essentially the pathway is to conserve as much energy as possible, to electrify everything, and then to offset the small amount of energy needed with renewables.

Our team performed a pilot design, with the support of Quest Canada and the Nova Scotia Department of Energy and Mines, to demonstrate the potential reductions in energy consumption and GHG emissions that could be achieved by applying this methodology to the retrofit of a low-rise MURB (multi-unit residential building) pilot building in Halifax.

Conventional methods of performing deep energy retrofits are slow and expensive, because every project is custom, as every building is unique. The ReCover Initiative is based on a systematic, turnkey approach to affordable deep energy retrofits, developed in the Netherlands, called Energiesprong (“energy leap”).

The ReCover process involves wrapping the building in a new prefabricated skin and replacing the mechanical systems with smaller, more efficient components. This work is faster and less disruptive than a typical renovation, and it allows for occupants to remain in their homes throughout the work. Additionally, following a proven, systematic process reduces risk to the contractor and reduces costs to the owner.

Emma Norton is with QUEST Canada; Nick Rudnicki is CEO RSI Projects and a Passive House-trained builder; and Lorrie Rand is president of Habit Studio and a Certified Passive House Designer.


Clayton Community Centre

Open design process meets high performance and needs of users

By Melissa Higgs

Located about 10km east of the Surrey City Centre, Clayton Heights is transitioning rapidly from a predominantly agricultural community to an increasingly urban one. Designed to feel like it is part of the surrounding forest, the Clayton Community Centre focuses on meeting the current and evolving needs of residents, with social gathering spaces that help foster wellness, connection and resilience.

The 7,000 m² (76,000sf) Centre combines four aspects of the City of Surrey’s community services – recreation, library, arts and parks — in a seamlessly integrated facility. Previously accustomed to operating out of their own separate buildings, the four programs pooled space and resources during the design process, maximizing the potential for positive impact on both the community and their own operations.

The social fabric of the surrounding context has informed a design that addresses the needs of young people, while providing key gathering spaces to support the development of overall community connections. The unique mix of spaces combines arts and culture programming including music studios, recording studios and a community rehearsal hall, with recreational activities including a gymnasium, fitness centre, and a branch library.

These services are supported by a range of shared social areas and a unique mix of supplementary spaces, imagined and developed in close collaboration with the community, and designed to allow for community-led programming. Clayton Community Centre initially opened its doors in February, 2021 with reduced programming due to COVID-19 restrictions, before opening fully in the summer of that year.

Community engagement played a crucial role in the design development. Rather than simply informing neighbouring residents of the building’s progress, the architectural team invited people into the process to shape its development. In the absence of a recognized independent standard, hcma created its own social impact framework based on principles of equity, social inclusion, sustainability and adaptability. Clayton Community Centre is the first building to have been completed using hcma’s framework from start to finish.

From the start, the project was aiming for ultra-low energy performance and ultimately Passive House certification. As most of the Passive House projects completed in North America have been in the residential sector, there are few completed non-residential projects from which to learn. By designing complex non-residential buildings, design professionals are charting new territory.

Melissa Higgs, Architect AIBC, FRAIC is a principal at hcma. 


Parcours Gouin Welcome Pavilion

A passive-active design brings urban beautification

By Maryse Laberge

Designed both as a visitor centre and as a showcase for environmental education, the Parcours Gouin Welcome pavilion integrates sustainable design  strategies, such as site preservation, potable water conservation, energy efficiency, renewable energy, local materials, and health and wellbeing. The Net-Zero project is certified LEED Gold.

The two-storey, 460m² building is located in the wooded Basile-Routhier Park, Montreal’s only riverside park accessible by Metro. The ground floor includes a community room that can accommodate various events, while the upper floor includes a large multi-purpose room, an office area for community organizations, the mechanical room and access to an exterior deck.

The site offers a variety of accessible services and facilities promoting outdoor activities, nature interpretation and healthy lifestyles, whether through nutrition or physical activity. The sustainable strategies used in the construction and operation of the building are demonstrated and explained to visitors. In addition, the biophilic design approach and the connection to the surrounding landscape are apparent throughout the building and contribute to the enjoyment well-being of the users.

Energy and Water

The ambition to achieve a Net Zero building is realized through a combination of strategies which include a high-performance building envelope, high-efficiency mechanical and electrical systems, and an array of 120 photovoltaic panels capable of generating 31.8 kilowatts of renewable energy.

Thermal comfort is achieved by minimizing thermal bridging through the highly insulated envelope, and the use of a radiant heating system embedded in the concrete slab. A ventilation and air conditioning system, controlled by occupancy sensors, also ensures excellent air quality and comfort. Operable triple-pane windows allow for natural ventilation when the weather is mild.

Water-saving appliances are used to reduce primary consumption. The domestic hot water is preheated by a solar collector on the roof (in which a heat transfer fluid circulates) before going into a holding tank. Rainwater management includes a rainwater collection tank for watering the gardens. Various stormwater management measures are integrated, such as permeable paving, bio-retention basins and rain gardens, and all are designed to fit harmoniously within the overall aesthetic of the building and its surroundings.

The energy-efficient curtain wall by Unicel Architectural contains triple-glazed sealed units, low-E film and interior wood mullions.

Maryse Laberge is Senior Principal at Beirtz Bastien Beaudoin Laforest (Groupe Provencher Roy).


Zibi Complexe O

One Planet Living project one step in reclaiming former industrial site

By Figurr Architects Collective

Located in both Ottawa and Gatineau, the Zibi development aims to be transformative physically, environmentally and socially. The only One Planet Living endorsed community in Canada, Zibi occupies formerly contaminated industrial lands, and is transforming them into one of Canada’s most sustainable communities. Incorporating public spaces and parks, as well as commercial, retail, and residential uses, Zibi will be an integrated, carbon neutral mixed-use community, one that’ll help reinvigorate the downtown cores of both Ottawa and Gatineau.

Complexe O, located on the Gatineau side of the Ottawa River, is Zibi’s first mixed-use building. It arose from the desire to create a socially responsible project that would set a precedent for future development.  The project takes its name from the word ‘eau’ (water) as it offers residents a panoramic view of the Ottawa River and the Chaudière Falls. The six-storey Complexe O building includes a range of housing from studios to two-storey mezzanine units, as well as commercial space on the first floor.

The location is significant; as under the ownership of Domtar (whose paper mill closed in 2007) the land had been inaccessible to the public for nearly 200 years. Now cleaned up and revitalized, the riverbank is once again available to the residents, not only of Complexe O, but all of Gatineau.

The architectural program is based on the ten principles of One Planet Living, one of the broadest frameworks for sustainable development, which sets a range of measurable goals. The fundamental principles guiding the construction of Complexe O are the use of carbon-neutral heating and cooling and sustainable water management. The project has achieved LEED Silver certification.

Carbon neutral energy is supplied from the Zibi Community Utility, a district energy system relying on energy recovery from effluents of the nearby Kruger Products Gatineau Plant for heating, and the Ottawa River for cooling. All the apartments in Complexe O are fitted with Energy Star certified appliances; LED lighting has been used throughout the entire building, including first floor commercial units and amenity spaces; and generous glazing reduces the need for artificial light.

The commercial space on the first floor is leased primarily to local and socially-responsible businesses, enabling residents to shop for essentials without having to rely on transportation. n addition, the central location in the heart of Gatineau is served by numerous bus lines from both Gatineau and Ottawa offering hundreds of trips per day.

This connectivity contributes to the Zibi development goal of a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide associated with transportation as measured by the car-to-household ratio. While the rest of the province has a 1.45 car to household ratio, the residents of Complex O have reduced this to 1:1. In addition all parking spaces are designed to accommodate electric charging units.

The project is located right on the Zibi Plaza, in fact forming one wall of the plaza, which offers residents a quiet and relaxing outdoor space that is closed to vehicular traffic but crossed by a bicycle path. Art exhibits are held in the vicinity to support local artists and artisans. Complexe O also provides residents with 15 garden boxes; gardening being an effective way to foster community.


  • Architect  Figurr Architects Collective
  • Owner/ Developer  DREAM / Theia Partners
  • General Contractor  Eddy Lands Construction Corp.
  • Landscape Architect  Projet Paysage / CSW Landscape Architects
  • Civil engineer  Quadrivium
  • Electrical Engineer  Drycore 2002 Inc. / WSP Canada Inc.
  • Mechanical Engineer  Alliance Engineering / Goodkey Weedmark & Associate Ltd.
  • Structural Engineer Douglas Consultants Inc.
  • Other consultants  BuildGreen Solutions, Morrison Hershfield
  • Photos  David Boyer


One Planet Living is based on a simple framework which enables everyone – from the general public to professionals – to collaborate on a sustainability strategy drawing on everyone’s insights, skills and experience. It is based on ten guiding principles of sustainability which are used to create holistic solutions.

• Encouraging active, social, meaningful lives to promote good health and wellbeing.

• Creating safe, equitable places to live and work which support local prosperity and international fair trade.

• Nurturing local identity and heritage, empowering communities and promoting a culture of sustainable living.

• Protecting and restoring land for the benefit of people and wildlife.

• Using water efficiently, protecting local water resources and reducing flooding and drought.

• Promoting sustainable humane farming and healthy diets high in local, seasonal organic food and vegetable protein.

• Reducing the need to travel, encouraging walking, cycling and low carbon transport.

• Using materials from sustainable sources and promoting products which help people reduce consumption; promoting reuse and recycling.

• Making buildings and manufacturing energy efficient and supplying all energy with renewable.



Montreal Biodome

Interior redesign complements extant architecture with minimal use of materials

Housed in the former Velodrome constructed for the Montréal 1976 Olympic Games, the Biodome opened in 1992 and is a jewel in the crown of a consortium of facilities that collectively account for the most visited museum spaces in Canada.

After winning an international architectural competition in 2014, KANVA, co-founded by Rami Bebawi and Tudor Radulescu, was commissioned for the $25 million project by Space for Life, the body charged with overseeing operations of the Biodome, Planetarium, Insectarium, and Botanical Garden.

“Our mandate was to enhance the immersive experience between visitors and the museum’s distinct ecosystems, as well as to transform the building’s public spaces,” notes Rami Bebawi, a partner of KANVA and the project’s lead architect. “In doing so, we embraced the role that the Biodome plays in sensitizing humans to the intricacies of natural environments, particularly in the current context of climate change and the importance of understanding its effects.”

KANVA studied the complexity of both building and program, a living entity comprised of ecosystems and complex machinery critical to supporting life. They realized that any intervention they proposed must be very delicate, and would require careful coordination and management within a truly collaborative design process. The success of this approach serves as a model for the future to better address the environmental issues in design.

The team began by targeting spaces that could be transformed in ways that would maximize the value of the building’s architectural heritage. The carving of a new core combined with the demolition of the low ceiling at the main entrance opened the space skyward to the extraordinary roof, composed of massive skylight panels that infuse the building with an abundance of natural light.

This massive open space became the circulation core between the ecosystems. To guide visitors, KANVA worked with Montreal-based Sollertia, on the parametric design and construction of a lightweight fabric living skin [1] that could be wrapped around the ecosystems to guide visitors, differentiate spaces and modulate the multi-sensory experience of the exhibits. The fabric walls total 500 metres in length, with the largest section being 18m x 18m.

The complex curvature of this biophilic skin, with its aluminum supporting structure, required sophisticated engineering and minutely precise prefabrication. Using a combination of tension, cantilevers, and triangular beams for suspension, the system is anchored to a primary steel structure. Mechanical junctions accommodate a variety of movements and allow for on-site adjustments.

Text edited by SABMag editior Jim Taggart, FRAIC from material supplied by the project team.


  • Design Architect and Project Manager  KANVA
  • Collaborating Architect  NEUF architects
  • Textile Architecture Specialist/Fabricator  Sollertia
  • Electromechanical Engineers  Bouthillette Parizeau Inc.
  • Structural Engineer  NCK Inc.
  • Building Code and Cost Consultant  Groupe GLT+
  • Specification writer  Atelier 6
  • Lighting Design Consultant  LightFactor
  • Collaborating Exhibition Designer  La bande à Paul
  • Collaborating Set Designer  Anick La Bissonnière
  • Collaborating Museologist  Nathalie Matte
  • Wayfinding Specialist  Bélanger Design
  • Land Surveyor  Topo 3D
  • Acoustics Specialist  Soft dB
  • Photos  James Brittain

The complex curvature of the fabric membrane walls, with their aluminum supporting structure, required sophisticated engineering and precise prefabrication. The membrane chosen for the Biodome (Alphalia Silent AW by Sollertia) has acoustic properties which reduce sound reverberation and improve the comfort of the visitors.


Okanagan College Health Sciences Centre

Model of healthcare education targets Net-Zero Carbon, WELL and LEED Gold certifications

By Peter Osborne

Located on a narrow brownfield site on the Kelowna campus of Okanagan College, the Health Sciences Centre includes technology-enhanced and student-centred labs, classrooms, and offices for health and social development programs.

The chosen site allowed the building to make use of  existing campus infrastructure; create a new front door to the existing laboratory building; and provide opportunities for shared use. The 3,300m² building is organized around a three-storey day-lit atrium, with ample interior glazing providing views into the generous program spaces and facilitating social connections.

Contrasting the solid facade, ground floor entries and public spaces are transparent, guiding visitors into and through the building. This strategic use of glazing contributes to a high-performance building envelope, greater resilience and occupant comfort.

The building utilizes waste heat generated by the nearby wastewater treatment plant, integrates photovoltaic panels for its primary heating and energy needs, requires no natural gas-fired HVAC systems and will earn the CaGBC’s Zero Carbon Building Design certification through demonstration of zero-carbon balance, meeting a defined threshold for thermal energy demand intensity and the provision of on-site renewable energy systems.

It was important to the College that the architecture of this new educational facility embody the health and wellness its programs support, through its use of materials, light, and landscape. As such, it is a catalyst for sustainability and wellness-focused policy changes across campus.

The design process included comprehensive consultation with local First nations, whose traditional notions of health and wellbeing will provide new insights into healthcare education in Canada. The design grew from a narrative, developed in consultation with the Westbank First Nation, around the act of weaving. The narrative provided a contemporary methodology to explore the connected histories and futures of the Syilx people, the College and students. This is evident, both in the building’s facade that references the warp and weft of fabric; and in the mass timber clerestory that criss-crosses the length of the building. These consultations also informed the selection of traditional medicinal plant species for the two new landscaped areas that bookend the building.

Operable windows and the central atrium create a natural stack effect within the building, allowing air to move up through the building to be exhausted through an energy recovery ventilator. Daylight penetrates the floor plate through clerestory glazing and all regularly occupied spaces have access to daylight and views.


  • Energy intensity (building and process energy) = 94KWhr/m²/year
  • Energy intensity reduction relative to reference building (under NECB 2011) = 46 %
  • Percentage of annual energy consumption met with renewables = 48%
  • Recycled material content by value = 29%
  • Construction waste diverted from landfill = 80%


  • Owner/Developer  Okanagan College
  • Architect  GEC Architecture
  • General Contractor  Stuart Olson
  • Landscape Architect  WSP
  • Civil Engineer  WSP
  • Electrical Engineer  Falcon Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineer  CIMA+
  • Structural Engineer  RJC Engineers
  • Commissioning Agent Inland Technical
  • Sustainability Consulting  EcoAmmo
  • Photos  Latitude Photography

The Fibre C cladding supplied by Sound Solutions is a glassfibre reinforced cementitious product in Polar White Matt finish and Polar White Ferro finish. It has ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certifications, and an environmental product declaration (EPD).


The importance of Biophilic Design

Advancing our physical and mental well-being

By Heather Dubbeldam

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically increased the importance we place on healthy homes and workplaces,

at least from the perspective of infection control. While

measures such as air filtration, sanitation and physical

barriers deal effectively with physical risks to health, much less has been done to address the mental toll the pandemic continues to exact on individuals and society as a whole.

There has been no more critical time in modern history for architects and interior designers to reflect on how their work can create environments that promote occupant health and wellbeing.

On average, Canadians spend roughly 90% of their time indoors between home and office. While we have long aspired to create healthy indoor spaces, the pandemic has highlighted how critically important it is. Over the past year we have seen a mini-exodus from cities as people seek healthier environments, more space and a reconnection with nature. City parks have confirmed their importance for urban dwellers as oases of refuge that offer green spaces and fresh air. Residential architects have been busy making homes more livable and more conducive to remote working. The crisis has also laid bare the shortcomings of social housing that has largely ignored occupant wellbeing.

While corporations have often looked at the office as a real estate transaction, fitting as many people as possible into a space, they are now looking at the workplace from a relationship perspective. With the upcoming return to the office and with work practices upended, employers will need to create workplaces that are seen as both safe and enjoyable. Businesses at the forefront of workplace design are investing in biophilic design to improve employee well-being and productivity, and to attract and retain the best staff.

So how can architects and designers create environments – whether residences, workspaces or institutions – that promote positive physical and mental well-being? One approach is through the incorporation of biophilic design.

Biophilic design is often confused with biophilia or biomimicry; although they are related, they are not the same:

• Biomimicry is the design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled on biological entities and processes – the mimicking of nature in manmade things.

• Biophilia, meaning love of nature, focuses on humanity’s innate attraction to nature and natural processes. It proposes that we have a genetic connection to the natural world built up through millennia spent living close to or immersed in nature.  It explains why we feel more relaxed in a park, hiking in the woods or spending time at a lake.

• Biophilia also contributes positively to our health; research shows that regular exposure to green space and natural elements is associated with a multitude of positive neurological and physiological outcomes, including a reduction in blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol and improved quality of sleep.

These concepts are foundational to biophilic design, which utilizes natural materials, patterns, and sensory elements to maintain a connection to nature within the built environment. This is a human-centred approach to design, integrating natural principles to support the physiological well-being of building occupants. Incorporating ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’ elements of nature into the built environment has been demonstrated to reduce stress, while supporting cognitive function, increasing productivity, creativity and self-reported rates of well-being.

‘Direct’ elements of nature include views to the exterior, plant material, ample natural light, and access to fresh air; ‘indirect’ elements include a sensory experience of the natural world achieved through spatial strategies, forms, pattern or materials.

Biophilic design is not simply about organic forms and green walls, it is a series of design techniques that are integrated into the built environment in a more subtle, but equally meaningful way. Successful biophilic designs are inspired by the qualities and features of natural settings without being exact duplicates. The means by which this is achieved varies from spatial strategies to visual cues to forms and materials used in the design.

These strategies can be grouped into three categories:


The presence of nature in a space, visual, sensory or auditory, in the form of plants, water, breezes, scents, light, shadows, and other natural elements.


The representational presence of nature using natural materials, colours, patterns, and shapes incorporated into building design, facade ornamentation, or decor, including images of nature, simulated natural light and air, organized complexity, and biomorphic forms and patterns.


The incorporation of spatial elements commonly found in nature including:

  • Prospect:  Unimpeded views.
  • Refuge: Places for withdrawal in which the individual is protected from behind and overhead.
  • Mystery: Partially obscured views or other sensory devices that entice the individual to travel deeper into the environment, or a mild sense of risk – like stepping stones over a shallow pond or a double height space.

Heather Dubbeldam, OAA, FRAIC, LEED AP is principal of Dubbeldam Architecture + Design and founder of THENEXTGREEN.CA.


The Passive Narrowtive House

Infill project a model of gentle densification and adaptability to changing needs

By Nick Bray Architecture

“The Passive Narrowtive” is located on a narrow infill lot near the centre of Vancouver. The house is lived in by the architect’s young family, with a tenant living in the garden suite below.

The intent was to demonstrate that a certified Passive House could be built on a small and challenging site, rethink housing design, and test innovative products and technologies.

The size and orientation of the site presented unique challenges, being long and narrow with the south elevation limited to a width of only 5.5 metres. More critically, its location in a peat bog with a high water table, required an innovative, low-impact foundation system to maintain the natural hydrology and comply with new environmental regulations. The house sits on a grid of beams spanning between 46-12m deep piles, its basement waterproofed with a durable, high quality tanking membrane.

The original one-bedroom house was beyond repair and was deconstructed, with over 90% of materials recycled. The elongated plan of the new house, with a depth of 14.6 metres, resulted in a high surface to volume ratio and hence a less than ideal form factor for the Passive House energy modelling. The narrow south-facing elevation was designed with large windows and deep solar-shading canopies to provide sufficient natural light, winter-solar-gain, and to prevent overheating in summer.

Space-efficiency was a critical design objective, the main consideration being to minimize the environmental impact of the building over its anticipated 100-year service life.  The 246m²  home contains five spacious bedrooms and five bathrooms.

The above-grade walls built with pre-fabricated structural insulated panels. The air barrier used on the house, the NS-A250 barrier by Naturaseal, is an eco-friendly waterproof, vapour resistant, UV stable elastomeric coating that is cold-applied using a spray system.

Large glazed doors bring natural light into the basement apartment. The high performance triple-glazed wood windows and doors, and the HRV ventilation system, were supplied by Vetta Building Technologies.


  • Owner/Developer/Architect  Nick Bray Architecture Ltd
  • Contractor  JDL Homes Vancouver / Black Thumb Contracting
  • Structural Engineer  Miskimmin Structural Engineering
  • Commissioning Agent  Rudy Sawatzky
  • Photos  Martin Knowles Photo / Media


  • Total energy Intensity (base building and process energy) = 54.5 KWhr/m²/year